ABSTRACTS No. 77 - Page 185


Traditions of fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura: the real nature, types and analysis

‘Abdul-‘Ali Pakzad Dr. Mahdi [‘Abdul-Mahdi] Jalali

Fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura has constantly been under attention of Sunni scholars, and at the same time has been a controversial discussion among the Shi‘a scholars. The cause of this difference was the existence of two groups of traditions in Shi‘a hadith literature about this subject. This article intends to examine the isnād (transmission chain) of these traditions and cast a glance at the content of them in a descriptive analytical-critical method with the purpose of familiarity with these two groups of traditions, and to verify their validity.

The findings of the present research denote that the fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura had prevailed before the fast of Ramadan was legislated, but it was forsaken later.

Some of the traditions forbidding the fasting on the Day of ‘Ashura are weak from the aspect of transmission chain, however, they collectively seem stronger than the traditions that permit this fasting, and conform better with the reported sīrah (conduct) of the Imams after the heart-rending Event of ‘Ashura. Furthermore, the fact that Shakh Kulaynī contented himself with merely narrating the permitting traditions, can be deemed an evidence for the validity decrease of permitting traditions in his opinion.

Keywords: ṣawm, fasting, ‘Ashura, Shi‘a, traditions, types, isnāds, purport of opinions.


Feasibility of presenting the ta’wīlī (interpretative) traditions to the Qur’an

Muhammad Moradi

There exist traditions in hadith texts speaking of "presenting the ta’wīlī (interpretative) traditions to the Book of God”. These traditions are considered as suggesting a strategy and a criterion, also accepted by Islamic scholars, to verify the authenticity of traditions.

On the other hand, there exist in the Islamic literatures, traditions containing teachings called ta’wīl (interpretation), and it is of the bāṭinī (esoteric) type of it (i.e. ta’wīl). These teachings which are ascribed to the Qur’anic verses and possibly are their ta’wīl, have, at the first glance, no congruence with the ẓāhir (outward meaning) of the Qur’an. It is said that considering the narrations in which mention has been made of the Ahl al-Bayt's mastery of ta’wīl, and the traditions in which it has been claimed that the Qur’an has baṭn (an inner layer of meaning), it is understood that these teachings are the same baṭn and ta’wīl.

This article intends to analyze the relation between the ẓāhir of the Qur’an and baṭinī ta’wīls (interpretations of the inner layer of the meaning). The writer believes that by ta’wīl and baṭn, in this group of traditions, it is not meant that they are infra-linguistic, rather (proves that) a number of them are incongruent with the ẓāhir of the Qur’an, and a group of them are beyond the realm of the technical sense of ta’wīl.

Keywords: traditions of presenting the hadiths to the Qur’an, traditions of baṭinī ta’wīl (interpretation of the inner layer of the meaning), evaluation of tradition, baṭinī ta’wīl.


Evaluation of traditions signifying that the Prophet (S) shook women's hands, with concentration on the verse Q 60:2

Mustafa Zamani Muhammad Reza Sotoudeh-nia Muhammad Reza Haji Esma’eeli

The Prophet’s method in securing allegiance from the women is among the disagreed issues among the traditions of the Two Islamic Schools (i.e. the Shi‘a and the Sunni). Ikhtilāf al-Hadith as a branch of Hadith sciences can be used to resolve this disagreement.

In this research the traditions are classified in four groups: 1) verbal allegiance along with bodily action, 2) bodily action, 3) verbal allegiance, 4)

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