Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) No. 71 Released
Publish Date: 1/1/2015 Code: 38422

Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) No. 71 Released

Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) is the first academic journal in the field of hadith scholarship and its related disciplines.



Ulum-i Hadith (Hadith Sciences) No. 71 Released


Criteria and Characteristics of Early Rijal Scholars in Discrediting Narrators

Mahdi Gholamali

The first field studied on discrediting narrators by the early rijal scholars is the characteristics of narrator’s way of hadith scholarship. A narrator’s hadith scholarship can be considered as his commitment to the process of hadith transmission. Narrators in the process of their education courses learn hadiths from teachers who have proven competence and then transmit them to the next generation through their good memory. In the past, some regulations were used by the scientific community governing this process (from memorizing to writing). If someone acted against the process, rijalis would denounce his performance or discredit him. Rijalis, with regard to the circumstances of the narrator, have pointed to the likely damages made by the narrator during transmitting hadiths so that mistakes of the narrator do not enter into the teachings of the Imami school of thought. Sometimes they have outlined principles and practices in order to explain the limit of possible damages, so that hadith scholars can easily identify them.

Key Words: Criterion, Discredit, Early Scholars, Narrators, Shia Rijalis.

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An Essay on the Historical Data of al-Kafi

Esmaeel Ethbati

Sayyed Kazem Tabatabaee

Shaykh Kulayni for writing al-Kafi has used resources and books which were written before him and mentioned them in his tariqs (chain of documents). Sheikh Kulayni has not obtained the contents of some resources directly from their authors but from the generations after the authors. In this paper, the author tries to give an account of some historical sources used by Sheikh Kulayni. Sheikh Kulayni used books written by Salim bin Qais, Jabir ibn Yazid Jufi, Aban ibn Taghlib, Abu Muhammed Jafari, Abu Ishaq Ahmari Nahavandi, Akhbar of Sayyid Ishaq ibn Muhammad Nakhai, al-Mubtada, al-Mabath al-Maghazi, al-Wafat, al-Saqifa and al-Radda written by Aban bin Uthman, books written by Jafar ibn Muhammad Kufi, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Thaqafi, Saalma ibn al-Khattab, Nasr ibn Muzahim Minqari Hisham ibn Muhammad ibn Saib Kalbi, Muhammad ibn Sinan, Hussayn bin Hassan Hussayni, Akhbar al-Qaim (a.s) by Allan Kulayni and other resources. History books written by generations after Sheikh Kulayni as al-Irshad by Sheikh Mufid, Kamal al-Din wa Tamam al-Nima by Sheikh Saduq, Kifaya al-Athar by Khazaz Qummi, al-Ghiba by Shaykh al-Tusi and al-Ghiba by Numani are all indebted to Sheikh Kulayni and have quoted many of their traditions from al-Kafi.

Key Words:  Sheikh Kulayni’s Library, Sources of al-Kafi, Historical Sources of al-Kafi.

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From "Theomorphism" to "Systematic Theism"

Document and Content Analysis of a Hadith:

"People are our slaves in the matters of obedience to us."

Mohammad Taqi Diyyari Bidgoli

Mahyar Khani Moqaddam

The above mentioned hadith [People are our slaves in the matters of obedience to us.] is one of the traditions that Imam Reza expressed in order to deal with deviations. The authors of the present paper try to make a content and document analysis of the hadith using descriptive and analytical method. At first, they make a verification of the people in the document of the hadith, then they outline and explain two approaches to the Imams: "theomorphism of the Imams" and "contemptuous approach" with emphasis on the difference in the meaning of the word "abid [slave]" and the political and social context of Imam Reza’s time. Imam Reza intended to reject these two approaches. The authors finally try to explain the correct approach to the hadith "viz. the Imams as means of guidance". For the Shia believe that the Imams after the Prophets shoulder the responsibility of guiding people. This divine gift of ismat [infallibility] has been bestowed upon them so that they can accomplish their goals. It will be obligatory upon us to comply with them.

Key Words: Slaves in the Matters of Obedience to Us, Theomorphism, Theism, Imams, Phenomenon of Exaggeration, Imam Reza;

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Place of Imam Sadiq (a.s) in the Exegesis of the Quran according to His Exegetical Traditions

Fatemeh Shariyani

Sayyed Mohammad Ali Ayazi

One of the most important ways to show the special place of Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) is to study and explain the knowledge that we have acquired from them and its various dimensions is visible in their interpretation. The importance of this study will be clear when it is done using a comparative method and comparing them to their contemporaries. Among the Infallible Imams, traditions quoted from Imam Sadiq (a.s) are of more quantity and diversity. Reflecting the diverse expression of Imam Sadiq (a.s) on the Quranic teachings and the newness of the exegeses, the authors of the present paper conclude that Imam Sadiq (a.s) has taught his followers a comprehensive method of interpretation of the Quran by presenting special meanings of the words of the Quran, causes of the revelation of the verses, community news and events in the past, the expression of specific evidence, interpretation and expression of the inner meaning, and predicting or foretelling the future. On the contrary, they [tabein] expressed mostly the literal meaning, causes of the revelation of the verses, and events in the past which are all of narrative nature. Therefore, study of the methods used by the Imam in his interpretation of the Quran aims to show the exclusive position of the Imam and his special knowledge.

Key Words: Exegesis of the Quran, Exegetical Hadith, Species of Exegeses, Imam Sadiq (a.s), Imam’s Contemporary Followers.

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Reliability of Hadiths on  Women’s Fitna (Intrigue)

 Resources, Documents and Concept

Ali Raad

Zeinab Majlesi Raad

There are at least nine statements in the Shia and Sunni hadith collections reporting women’s intrigue. These traditions are dividable in two general types: explicit attribution of  intrigue to women and juxtaposition with other intrigues. Acceptance of these texts as hadith and reporting them in the famous Shia and Sunni hadith books, indicate a historical belief in the content of these traditions in the Islamic culture and thought which has serious impacts on the people’s approach to the character and competence of women from Islamic perspective and makes the contemporary Orientalists and feminists think of women as humiliated beings in Islam. However, according to Imami school of thought and based on the results of the evaluation document and theological foundations of the authority of tradition, final attribution of all the traditions to the Infallible Imams is not right. but some of them are of strong issuance. The historicity of the documents indicate that the time of issuance of these traditions dates back to the first century AD, and in particular the era of the Prophet’s mission. Transition from Jahili culture to the Islamic culture is the discourse characteristics of this period  and Islam had a reform and revival approach to woman aiming to repair and correct female character and adjust relations between men and women. The authors of the present paper have a critical view of hadiths on women’s fitna (intrigue) from different perspectives: frequency, historicity, the discourse analysis of issuance, source validation and documentation, conflict with other traditions. Findings of the study suggest that women’s fitna (intrigue) in traditions is not tantamount women’s humiliation  and traditions just suggest the sensitivity of intimacy with women.

Key Words: Women’s Fitna (Intrigue), Love for Women, Sexual Morality, Gender and Hadith, Hadith Criticism.

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A Critical View of the Tawthiq (Attestation of Reliability) of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa al-Ashari’s Teachers.

(Analysis, Criticism, and Evaluation)

Mohammad Sadeq Bakhsi Jooybari

Sometimes, it is possible to know narrator’s rijal characteristics  by general attestation of reliability in which a group of narrators’ reliability are attested under specific criteria. Exact analysis of the general attestation of reliability is of high importance in the study of the hadith transmitters. General Management investigates some of the issues that are important studies of the narrator. After identifying hadith and rijali character of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa al-Ashari and reporting the theory of "the Tawthiq (Attestation of Reliability) of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa al-Ashari’s Teachers", the author of the present paper makes a critical view of it using descriptive and analytical method. Recent Twelver Shia rijalis have different views of the theory. In such a way that some rijal scholars believe the reliability of all the Ashari’s teachers and others deny it. It is clear that if we accept the theory, then we should consider some unknown narrators as reliable. As a result many daif (weak) hadiths turn into sahih (authentic) ones. The author finally investigates the reasons of proponents of this theory and concludes that according to rijal and hadith findings and based on clear evidences this theory is incomplete. So the reliability of the teachers of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Isa al-Ashari like other narrators needs to be attested.

Key Words: Ahmad ibn Mohammed ibn Issa, al-Ash'ari, Teachers, Teachers of Reliable Hadith Transmitters, General Tawthiq (Attestation of Reliability).

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Evaluation and Documentation of Kulayni’s Historical Reports on the Birthplace of Prophet Muhammad

Mansoor Dadashnezhad

Fatemeh Karami

Prophet Muhammad’s lifestyle is found in Shia hadith books here and there sometimes under a specific topic. Al-Kafi written by Kulayni (d 329 AH) is one of the oldest Shia sources of narration, which deals with the life of the Prophet (s.a) in a separate chapter. Kulayni has an overview of the life of the Prophet in a page without documentation, before mentioning musnad hadiths. He has reported some information that is sometimes in accordance with Sunni resources.

Examining structure and content similarity in Kulayni’s historical reports, the authors of the present paper seeks to display Kulayni’s documentation and sources and depict  his criteria and logic in the selection of historical records. Findings of this study show that Kulayni has been satisfied with the famous historical hadiths and traditions that their attribution to the Infallible Imams is in doubt.

Key Words: Prophet (s.a), Kulayni’s Methodology, al-Kafi, Documentation of al-Kafi, Birthplace of Prophet Muhammad.

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Thematic Analysis of Scientific-Research Journals on Hadith Sciences

Published between the Years 2007 and 2011

Azam Hosseininasab

Mahdi Mohammadi

Abdolhossein Talei

The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution rate and thematic orientation of papers in scientific-research journals on hadith sciences between 2007 and 2011. Using a content analysis method, the authors of the present paper analyze articles in terms of  their themes. The themes are categorized according to the Glossary of Ulum-i Hadith [Hadith Sciences]. Findings and results of this study shows that 342 of 357 papers have been compiled and 8 papers translated. 53.8 percent of them were authored by professionals with doctoral degree. From the standpoint of academic rank, the assistant professors had the highest participation. Men have authored 87.7 percent of the papers while women 12.3 percent. Of the articles examined, 62.7 percent have been written by one author, 33.9 percent by two authors and 3.4 percent by three authors. In terms of organizational commitment, Tehran University was at the forefront of educational research institutes. The analysis showed that most general categories of hadith sciences is the category of "hadith new approaches" by 37 percent and "Diraya" by 15.4 percent and "characteristics of hadith" by 14.6 percent were in the following places.

Key Words: Hadith Sciences, Subject Analysis, Content Analysis, Scientific-Research Journals.

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