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Imam Ali and Political Leadership

35. al-Futuh: “All the Kufans swore allegiance to Ali (a.s.)…then the people of Hijāz and the people of Iraq swore allegiance to Ali ibn Abu Tālib (a.s.).”1

36. al-Tabaqāt al-Kubrā: “Uthmān was killed on Friday the eighteenth of Dhil Hijja, 35 (AH) [June 17, 656], and the pledge of allegiance to caliphate was sworn to Ali (a.s.) in Medina one day after the assassination of `Uthmān. Talha, Zubair, Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqās, Sa`id ibn Zaid, `Ammār ibn Yāsir, Usāma ibn Zaid, Sahl ibn Hanif, Abu Ayub al-Ansāri, Muhammad ibn Maslima, Zaid ibn Thābit, Khuzayma ibn Thābit and everyone else that was in Madina from among the companions of the Messenger of God (s.a.w.) swore their allegiance to him.2

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Statements of a Group of the Imām’s Companions after the Pledge of Allegiance

37. Tārikh al-Ya`qubi –after mentioning the people’s allegiance to Ali (a.s.): “A group of the Ansār stood up and spoke. The first one to speak was Thābit ibn Qays ibn Shammas al-Ansāri who was the orator of the Ansār. He said: “By God, O Commander of the Faithful, if they preceded you in the rule (wilāya), they did not precede you in religion, and if they went before you yesterday, you have caught up to them today. They and you were not unaware of your status and they were not ignorant of your position. They were in need of you in what they did not know, and you with all your knowledge are in no need of anyone.”
Khuzayma ibn Thābit al-Ansāri who was also known as Dhul Shahādatayn3 then stood up and said: “O Commander of the Faithful! We find nobody for this affair other than you, and the affairs of the state will not settle except by you. If we are to be truthful to ourselves, about you, you are the most precedent of people in faith, the most knowledgeable among people about God and the closest among all believers to the Messenger of God. What they possess you possess, but they do not have what you have.” After him, Sa`sā`a ibn Suhān stood up and said: “By God, O Commander of the Faithful! You have adorned the caliphate, and it did not adorn you. You elevated it [the caliphate], and it did not elevate you. Indeed it is in need of you more than you are in need of it.”
Then Mālik ibn al-Hārith al-Ashtar stood up and said: “O People! This is the successor of the successors, the heir of the knowledge of the Prophets, he who has undergone great tests and possesses immense forbearance. The Book of God testifies to his faith and His Messenger testifies for him to be in the Heaven. All virtues have been perfected in him and no one of the past and the future has doubted his precedence, knowledge and virtue.”
`Uqba ibn `Amr also stood up and said: “Who has one day like the day of `Aqaba and an allegiance like the allegiance of Ridwan [Good Pleasure]; who is the most guiding leader with no fear of his tyranny and a learned person with no fear of his ignorance.”4

1.. al-Futuh, vol. ۲, p. ۴۳۹.

2.. al-Tabaqāt al-Kubrā, vol. ۳, p. ۳۱.

3.. The Prophet (s.a.w.) gave him this title when he took sides with the Messenger of God in an argument with a Bedouin, with the reasoning that “We believed in you with the bringing of the Divine Message, so how could we not believe in you against a Bedouin? (Mu`jam Rijāl al-Hadith, vol. ۸, p. ۵۲).

4.. Tārikh al-Ya`qubi, vol. ۲, p. ۱۷۹.


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35. الفتوح: بايَعَت أهلُ الكوفَةِ عَلِيّاً(رضي الله عنه) بِأَجمَعِهِم... فَبايَعَت أهلُ الحِجازِ وأهلُ العِراقَينِ لِعَلِيِّ بنِ أبي طالِب(رضي الله عنه).1

36. الطبقات الكبرى: لَمّا قُتِلَ عُثمانُ يَومَ الجُمُعَةِ لِثمانِيَ عَشَرَةَ لَيلَةً مَضَت مِن ذِي الحِجَّةِ سَنَةَ خَمس وثَلاثينَ، وبويِعَ لِعَلِيِّ بنِ أبي طالِب؛ بِالمَدينَةِ الغَدَ مِن يَومَ قُتِلَ عُثمانُ، بِالخِلافَةِ، بايَعَهُ طَلحَةُ، وَالزُّبَيرُ، وسَعدُ بنُ أبي وَقّاص، وسَعيدُ بنُ زَيدِ بنِ عَمرِو بنِ نُفَيل، وعَمّارُ بنُ ياسِر، واُسامَةُ بنُ زَيد، وسَهلُ بنُ حُنَيف، وأبو أيّوبَ الأَنصاريُّ، ومُحَمَّدُ بنُ مَسلَمَةَ، وزَيدُ بنُ ثابِت، وخُزَيمَةُ بنُ ثابِت، وجَميعُ مَن كانَ بِالمَدينَةِ مِن أصحابِ رَسولِ اللهِ صلی الله علیه وآله، وغَيرُهُم.2

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خطاب طائفة من أصحابه بعد البیعة

37. تاريخ اليعقوبي ـ بَعدَ ذِكرِ بَيعَةِ النّاسِ لِعَلِيٍّ علیه السلام ـ: وقامَ قَومٌ مِنَ الأَنصارِ فَتَكَلَّموا، وكانَ أوَّلُ مَن تَكَلَّمَ ثابِتَ بنَ قَيسِ بنِ شَمّاس الأَنصاريَّ ـ وكانَ خَطيبَ الأَنصارِ ـ فَقالَ: وَاللهِ، يا أميرَ المُؤمِنينَ، لَئِن كانوا تَقَدَّموكَ في الوِلايَةِ فَما تَقَدَّموكُ في الدِّينِ، ولَئِن كانوا سَبَقوكَ أمسِ فَقَد لَحِقتَهُمُ الَيومَ، ولَقَد كانوا وكُنتَ لا يَخفى مَوضِعُكَ، ولا يُجهَلُ مَكانُك، يَحتاجونَ إلَيكَ فيما لا يعَلَمونَ، ومَا احتَجتَ إلى أحَد مَعَ عِلمِك.
ثُمَّ قامَ خُزَيمَةُ بنُ ثابِت الأَنصاريُّ ـ وهُوَ ذُو الشَّهادَتَينِ ـ فَقالَ: يا أميرَ المُؤمِنينَ، ما أصَبنا لِأَمرِنا هذا غَيرَكَ، ولا كانَ المُنقَلَبُ إلّا إلَيكَ، ولَئِن صَدَقنا أنفُسَنا فيكَ، فَلأَنتَ أقدَمُ النّاسِ إيماناً، وأعلَمُ النّاسِ بِاللهِ، وأولَى المُؤمِنينَ بِرَسولِ اللهِ، لَكَ ما لَهُم، ولَيسَ لَهُم ما لَكَ.
وقامَ صَعصَعَةُ بنُ صوحان فَقالَ: وَاللهِ، يا أميرَ المُؤمِنينَ، لَقَد زَيَّنتَ الخِلافَةَ وما زانَتكَ، ورَفَعتَها وما رَفَعَتكَ، ولَهِيَ إلَيكَ أحوَجُ مِنكَ إلَيها.
ثُمَّ قامَ مالِكُ بنُ الحارِثِ الأَشتَرُ فَقالَ: أيُّهَا النّاسُ، هذا وَصِيُّ الأَوصِياءِ، ووَارِثُ علِمِ الأَنبِياءِ، العَظيمُ البَلاءِ، الحَسَنُ العَناءِ،3 الَّذي شَهِدَ لَهُ كِتابُ اللهِ بِالإِيمانِ، ورَسولُهُ بِجَنَّةِ الرِّضوانِ، مَن كَمُلَت فيهِ الفَضائِلُ، ولَم يَشُكَّ في سابِقَتِهِ وعِلمِهِ وفَضلِهِ الأَواخِرُ ولاَ الأَوائِلُ.
ثُمَّ قامَ عُقبَةُ بنُ عَمرو فَقالَ: مَن لَهُ يَومٌ كَيَومِ العَقَبَةِ، وبَيعَةٌ كَبَيعَةِ الرِّضوانِ، وَالإِمامُ الأَهدَى الَّذي لا يُخافُ جَورُهُ، وَالعالِمُ الَّذي لا يُخافُ جَهلُهُ.4

1.. الفتوح: ج۲ ص۴۳۹.

2.. الطبقات الكبرى: ج۳ ص۳۱.

3.. في الطبعة المعتمدة: «الغناء» وما أثبتناه من طبعة النجف (ج۲ ص۱۵۵). والعناء هنا: المداراة أو حسن السياسة ( لسان العرب: ج۱۵ ص۱۰۶).

4.. تاريخ اليعقوبي: ج۲ ص۱۷۹.

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    Imam Ali and Political Leadership
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